Ideally, I would like to divide each pixel value in the target image by the value of the same pixel in the reference image, but I don't know how to do this in Photoshop. I found another method that works in only 3 steps:
Paste it as a new layer over the target
The resulting image is a bit too bright, but this is easily fixed by adjusting the levels of the calibration layer. Feel free to try for yourself using my pictures.
Whether the calibration image works depends on the tint, which depends on the phone. Apparently there are different tints, and some phones produce tints in different situations. You'll get the best results by taking your own calibration image. My phone only seems to have 1 type of tint, since this calibration image works for this image I took 6 months ago.